*Isaac Newton is well known as one of the greatest scientists who ever lived. Less well known is his deep belief in God and his conviction that scientific investigation leads to a greater knowledge of God the Creator of the universe.*

**Sir Isaac Newton,**(1642-1727) was a English physicist and mathematician, who discovered the law of gravity, created calculus, discovered that white light is composed of many colours, and developed the three standard laws of motion still in use today.

**Sir Isaac Newton,**(born December 25, 1642 [January 4, 1643, New Style], Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England—died March 20 [March 31], 1727, London), English physicist and mathematician, who was the culminating figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. In optics, his discovery of the composition of white light integrated the phenomena of colours into the science of light and laid the foundation for modern physical optics. In mechanics, his three laws ofmotion, the basic principles of modern physics, resulted in the formulation of the law of universal gravitation. In mathematics, he was the original discoverer of the infinitesimal calculus. Newton’s

*Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica*(

*Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy*), 1687, was one of the most important single works in the history of modern science.

His father died before he was born
and mother remarried leaving him in the care of his grandmother. At the age of
fourteen Newton was forced to leave school to help his mother with farming.

Isaac spent much of his time
on the farm reading and ended up returning to school. At the bidding of an
uncle, Newton began furthering his education in June of 1661, when he entered
Trinity College, Cambridge. He set out to get a degree in law and this limited
his field of study was very during his first few years of college. However, by
the third year he was allowed more freedom to pursue other interests. During
this time he was able to study new mathematical and scientific methods from
such scientists and mathematicians as Galileo, and Wallis. Newton graduated
from Cambridge in 1665, without any particular honors.

Isaac then went to Trinity College at Cambridge University
with the intention of becoming a Church of England minister. Again, life was
not easy for him. As he was unable to afford the tuition fees, he worked many
hours each day serving meals and doing other jobs for the professors in order
to pay his way. Isaac’s knowledge of the Bible continued to impress those
around him.

At that time the
ideas of the ancient Greek scholars still dominated what was taught in science,
and recent scientific discoveries were largely ignored. This greatly annoyed
Isaac Newton who firmly believed that ideas in science should be tested and
only accepted if their usefulness could be demonstrated. He was committed to
the experimental method of science.

Isaac graduated
in 1665, shortly before an outbreak of Black Death swept through London. All
universities were closed while the plague raged. During this time, Isaac
returned to his family’s farm, now run by his young half-brother. He continued
his study and research, working on the binomial theorem, light, telescopes,
calculus and theology. After supposedly seeing an apple fall in the garden, he
investigated gravity, but was unable to solve the puzzle until some years
later. (It should be noted that some authorities question this ‘apple’ story.
They say that the first mention of it came through the antireligious French
philosopher and skeptic, Voltaire, who reputedly heard it from Newton’s
grandniece.)

Newton was very sensitive to negative comments and had to be
convinced by another scientist Edmond Halley to publish his findings. After his
book Principia Mathematica in which his various discoveries and ideas were
presented, Newton enjoyed success in other realms. He became a member of the
British Parliament and was a member of various mathematical organizations such
as the Royal Society council to which he was later elected president. He died
on March 31, 1727 in London.

Newton had many interesting
characteristics such as his study alchemy. Which is a blend of chemistry, magic
and religion. Achlemists' goal was to find a way to produce gold out of
different metals and also to find a magic potion which could cure ills and
increase ones life. Isaac was modest, and generous to his family and those who
helped him along the way. Some of Newton's discoveries were later refuted by
Albert Einstein in reference to his theories of gravitational pull. However,
Einstein and others still contend that Newton was indeed a very important force
in man's quest for knowledge and is highly regarded for his contributions in
many different areas of science.

**Revolution in Mathematics**

Newton applied his binomial theorem to infinite series
and from there developed calculus, a revolutionary new form of mathematics. For
the first time it was possible to accurately calculate the area inside a shape
with curved sides, and to calculate the rate of change of one physical quantity
with respect to another. A similar system of mathematics was developed by
German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz. For a long time there was great
confusion, with each being accused of stealing the other’s work. It was a
distressing time for both. Many years later, it was established that each had
developed calculus independently at roughly the same time. Neither was a cheat.

**Focused on Gravity**

In Newton’s day, many people were superstitious or afraid
of what they could not understand—such as the appearance of a comet, which was
considered a sign of coming disaster. Even scientists generally considered the
motion of planets and the motion of bodies on the earth as separate problems.
In contrast, Newton reasoned that since the same God created the heavens as
well as the earth, the same laws should apply throughout.

In 1684, Newton again began to consider gravity. He
developed his theory of universal gravitation, which used what is known as the
inverse square law. He developed his three laws of motion (movement) and proved
mathematically that the same laws did, in fact, apply both to the heavens and
the earth. His faith had focused his thoughts in the right direction.

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