The Earth's Geographic North Pole is also referred to as the Terrestrial North Pole, but usually simply called the North Pole.
North Pole, northern end of the earth's axis, lat. 90°N. It is distinguished from the north magnetic pole. U.S. explorer Robert E. Peary was long generally credited as being the first to reach (1909) the North Pole despite Frederick A.Cook's prior claim (1908). In 1926, Richard E.
The North Pole is defined as one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation meets the Earth's surface (the other being the South Pole, diametrically opposite). The North Pole is the northernmost point on Earth; it defines latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of True North. At the North Pole all directions point south.
Byrd and Floyd Bennett may have been the first persons to fly over the pole, but entries in Byrd's diary suggest that they may have missed the actual pole; if so, that feat would belong to Roald Amundsen. The first overland expedition to have unquestionably reached the pole arrived in 1968; it was led by American Ralph Plaisted and traveled by snowmobile. See also Arctic, the.
While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean. There is no land at the North Pole, just waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice. This makes it impossible to construct a permanent station at the North Pole (unlike the South Pole). The sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 13,410 ft.Sunrise and sunset do not occur in a twenty-four hour cycle at the North Pole; sunrise lasts for three months until the sun reaches its highest point at the summer solstice.
The American explorer claimed to have reached the pole by dog sledge in April 1909, and another American explorer, , claimed to have reached it by airplane on May 9, 1926; the claims of both men were later questioned. Three days after Byrd’s attempt, on May 12, the pole was definitely reached by an international team of , , and, who traversed the polar region in a dirigible. The first ships to visit the pole were the U.S. nuclear submarines Nautilus (1958) and Skate (1959), the latter surfacing through the ice, and the Soviet icebreaker Arktika was the first surface ship to reach it (1977). Other notable surface expeditions include the first confirmed to reach the pole (1968; via snowmobile), the first to traverse the polar region (1969; Alaska to Svalbard, via dog sled), and the first to travel to the pole and back without resupply (1986; also via dog sled); the last expedition also included the first woman to reach the pole, American .