Tardigrades, also called water bear, any of about 800 species of free-living, cosmopolitan invertebrates belonging to the phylum Tardigrada. They are considered to be close relatives of arthropods (e.g., insects, crustaceans). Tardigrades are mostly about 1 mm or less in size. They live in a variety of habitats: in damp moss, on flowering plants, in sand, in freshwater, and in the sea. In adapting to this wide range of external conditions, a large number of genera and species have evolved.
Tardigrades have a well-developed head region and a short body composed of four fused segments, with each segment bearing a pair of short, stout, unjointed limbs generally terminated by several sharp claws. The animals have no known specialized organs of circulation or respiration, and the alimentary canal traverses the body from end to end. Most plant-eating tardigrades feed by piercing individual plant cells with their stylets (spearlike structures near the mouth) and then sucking out the cell contents. A few tardigrades are predacious carnivores. The sexes of tardigrades are not distinct, and the eggs are discharged either into the posterior end of the alimentary canal or directly to the exterior through an opening in front of the anus.
The most remarkable feature of the tardigrades is their ability to withstand extremely low temperatures and desiccation. Under unfavourable conditions, they go into a resistant state of suspended animation. Specimens kept for eight days in a vacuum, transferred for three days into helium gas at room temperature, and then exposed for several hours to a temperature of -272° C (-458° F) came to life again when they were brought to normal room temperature. Sixty percent of specimens kept for 21 months in liquid air at a temperature of -190° C (-310° F) also revived. Tardigrades are easily distributed by wind and water while in such resistant states.